What are some common terms associated with depression?
The following glossary contains definitions to help you understand terms related to the treatment of depression.
Any undesired actions or effects of a drug or treatment. They are recorded as the percentage of patients who experience them; for example, if 10 people out of 100 in a clinical trial take a medicine and develop a headache, then 10% of the study participants experienced this side effect.
Medications that treat depression. There are several different types of antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and tricyclic antidepressants. They vary in how they work, in their side effects, and how they may interact with other medications.
A research study designed to answer specific questions about new therapies or new ways of using known treatments. Clinical studies are used to determine whether new drugs or treatments are both safe and effective.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services agency responsible for ensuring the safety and effectiveness of all drugs, biologics, vaccines, and medical devices.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
A person with MDD has at least 5 of the following symptoms. At least one of the symptoms must be depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure. These symptoms must be present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning:
- Depressed mood
- Loss of interest or pleasure
- Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
- Agitation or restlessness
- Fatigue or loss of energy
- Trouble thinking, making decisions, or concentrating
- Disturbed sleep, such as insomnia
- Changes in appetite or weight
- Thoughts of death or suicide, or suicide attempts
A wide range of mental health conditions — disorders that affect mood, thinking, and behavior. Examples of mental illness include depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, eating disorders, and addictive behaviors.
A chemical in the brain that transmits nerve impulses from one neuron to an adjacent neuron at a place called a synapse. Serotonin is one type of neurotransmitter.
Commonly known as a sugar pill, it is a biologically inactive substance administered to some participants in a clinical trial for the purpose of comparing no treatment to active treatment. In a blinded trial, patients do not know whether they are receiving a placebo or the drug being tested.
A physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses.
The medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses.
A person trained in the study of the mind and behavior in relation to different areas of human activity, including the family, education, employment, and also trained in the treatment of mental health problems.
A professionally trained and licensed person who uses a variety of techniques to improve the mental health and coping skills of their patients. Psychotherapists come from diverse backgrounds and include psychologists, counselors, social workers, and psychiatrists.
Treatment of emotional, behavioral, personality, and psychiatric disorders in the context of an established therapeutic relationship between a psychotherapist and client/group. Most forms of psychotherapy use verbal communication; interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral therapies are among the most common.
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VIIBRYD® (vilazodone HCI) is a prescription medicine indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults.
VIIBRYD and other antidepressants may increase suicidal thoughts or actions in some people 24 years of age and younger, especially within the first few months of treatment or when the dose is changed. VIIBRYD is not for use in children.
Depression or other serious mental illnesses are the most important causes of suicidal thoughts or actions. Some people, including those with (or a family history of) depression, bipolar illness, or a history of suicidal thoughts or actions may have a higher risk of suicidal thoughts or actions. Pay close attention to and call your healthcare provider right away to report any new or sudden changes in mood, behavior, thoughts or feelings.
Call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of these symptoms, especially if they are new, worse, or worry you:
- Attempts to commit suicide; acting on dangerous impulses; acting aggressive or violent; thoughts about suicide or dying; new or worse depression, new or worse anxiety; panic attacks; feeling agitated or restless; new or worse irritability; trouble sleeping; an extreme increase in activity or talking (mania); or other unusual changes in behavior or mood
Do not take VIIBRYD if you take a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), have taken or will take an MAOI within 14 days of taking VIIBRYD, or are being treated with the antibiotic linezolid or intravenous methylene blue.
Serotonin Syndrome: A potentially life-threatening problem that can happen when VIIBRYD is taken with certain other medicines. Stop taking VIIBRYD and call your healthcare provider or go to the nearest emergency room right away if you have any of the following: agitation; hallucinations; confusion, coma; fast heart beat; blood pressure changes; dizziness; sweating; flushing; high body temperature; tremors, stiff muscles, or muscle twitching; loss of coordination; seizures; nausea, vomiting or diarrhea
Increased chance of bleeding: Taking VIIBRYD with aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), warfarin, or blood thinners may add to this risk. Tell your healthcare provider right away about unusual bleeding or bruising
Manic episodes: Symptoms may include greatly increased energy; severe trouble sleeping; racing thoughts; reckless behavior; unusually grand ideas; excessive happiness or irritability; talking more or faster than usual
Discontinuation symptoms: Do not suddenly stop VIIBRYD without first talking to your healthcare provider. Stopping VIIBRYD suddenly may cause serious side effects including: nausea; sweating; changes in mood; headache; irritability and agitation; tiredness; dizziness; problems sleeping; electric shock sensation; hypomania; anxiety; ringing in your ears; confusion; seizures
Seizures or convulsions
Glaucoma (angle-closure glaucoma): VIIBRYD may cause an eye problem called angle-closure glaucoma. Call your healthcare provider if you have changes in your vision or eye pain
Low salt (sodium) levels in the blood: May be serious and may cause death. Elderly people may be at greater risk for this. Symptoms may include headache; difficulty concentrating; memory changes; confusion; weakness and unsteadiness which can lead to falls
In severe or more sudden cases, symptoms include hallucinations; fainting; seizures; coma; respiratory arrest; death.
- Tell your healthcare provider about any medical conditions or if you:
- Have or have a family history of suicide, depression, bipolar disorder, mania or hypomania
- Have or had bleeding problems
- Have or had seizures or convulsions
- Have high pressure in the eye (glaucoma)
- Have low salt (sodium) levels in your blood
- Drink alcohol
- Are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Taking VIIBRYD late in pregnancy may lead to an increased risk of certain problems in your newborn. Talk to your healthcare provider about the risks to your baby if you take VIIBRYD during pregnancy. If you become pregnant during treatment with VIIBRYD, talk to your healthcare provider about registering with the National Pregnancy Registry for Antidepressants at 1-844-405-6185
- Are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. It is not known if VIIBRYD passes into breast milk. Talk to your healthcare provider about the best way to feed your baby during treatment with VIIBRYD
- Tell your healthcare provider about all prescription and over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and herbal supplements you are taking or plan to take, especially:
- MAOIs; triptans (medicines used to treat migraines); tricyclic antidepressants; fentanyl; lithium; tramadol; tryptophan; buspirone; amphetamines; St. John’s Wort; medicines that can affect blood clotting such as aspirin, NSAIDs, and warfarin; diuretics; medicines used to treat mood, anxiety, psychotic, or thought disorders, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) VIIBRYD may affect the way other medicines work, and other medicines may affect how VIIBRYD works. Do not start or stop any medicines while taking VIIBRYD without talking to your healthcare provider.
- Do not drive, operate heavy machinery, or engage in other dangerous activities until you know how VIIBRYD affects you. VIIBRYD can cause sleepiness or may affect your ability to make decisions, think clearly, or react quickly. Avoid drinking alcohol while taking VIIBRYD.
- The most common side effects of VIIBRYD include diarrhea, nausea or vomiting, and trouble sleeping. These are not all the possible side effects of VIIBRYD.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.