What are some common terms associated with depression?
The following glossary contains definitions to help you understand terms related to the treatment of depression.
Any undesired actions or effects of a drug or treatment. They are recorded as the percentage of patients who experience them; for example, if 10 people out of 100 in a clinical trial take a medicine and develop a headache, then 10% of the study participants experienced this side effect.
Medications that treat depression. There are several different types of antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and tricyclic antidepressants. They vary in how they work, in their side effects, and how they may interact with other medications.
A research study designed to answer specific questions about new therapies or new ways of using known treatments. Clinical studies are used to determine whether new drugs or treatments are both safe and effective.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services agency responsible for ensuring the safety and effectiveness of all drugs, biologics, vaccines, and medical devices.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
A person with MDD has at least 5 of the following symptoms. At least one of the symptoms must be depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure. These symptoms must be present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning:
- Depressed mood
- Loss of interest or pleasure
- Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
- Agitation or restlessness
- Fatigue or loss of energy
- Trouble thinking, making decisions, or concentrating
- Disturbed sleep, such as insomnia
- Changes in appetite or weight
- Thoughts of death or suicide, or suicide attempts
A wide range of mental health conditions — disorders that affect mood, thinking, and behavior. Examples of mental illness include depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, eating disorders, and addictive behaviors.
A chemical in the brain that transmits nerve impulses from one neuron to an adjacent neuron at a place called a synapse. Serotonin is one type of neurotransmitter.
Commonly known as a sugar pill, it is a biologically inactive substance administered to some participants in a clinical trial for the purpose of comparing no treatment to active treatment. In a blinded trial, patients do not know whether they are receiving a placebo or the drug being tested.
A physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses.
The medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses.
A person trained in the study of the mind and behavior in relation to different areas of human activity, including the family, education, employment, and also trained in the treatment of mental health problems.
A professionally trained and licensed person who uses a variety of techniques to improve the mental health and coping skills of their patients. Psychotherapists come from diverse backgrounds and include psychologists, counselors, social workers, and psychiatrists.
Treatment of emotional, behavioral, personality, and psychiatric disorders in the context of an established therapeutic relationship between a psychotherapist and client/group. Most forms of psychotherapy use verbal communication; interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral therapies are among the most common.
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VIIBRYD® (vilazodone HCI) is a prescription medicine indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults.
VIIBRYD and other antidepressant medicines may cause serious side effects. Call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of the symptoms described below, or call 911 if there is an emergency.
Antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thoughts or actions in some people 24 years of age and younger. Watch closely for worsening depression and for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Call your healthcare provider right away if you notice any new or sudden changes in mood, behavior, thoughts or feelings. Pay particular attention when VIIBRYD is started or when the dose is changed.
VIIBRYD is not approved for use in patients under 18.
Call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of these symptoms, especially if they are new, worse, or worry you:
- Attempts to commit suicide; acting on dangerous impulses; acting aggressive or violent; thoughts about suicide or dying; new or worse depression, anxiety, or panic attacks; feeling agitated, restless, angry or irritable; trouble sleeping; an increase in activity or talking more than normal (mania); or other unusual changes in behavior or mood
Serotonin Syndrome: Agitation, hallucinations, coma or other changes in mental status; coordination problems or muscle twitching; fast heartbeat, high or low blood pressure; sweating or fever; nausea, vomiting or diarrhea; muscle stiffness or tightness.
Increased chance of bleeding: VIIBRYD and other antidepressant medicines may increase your chance of bleeding or bruising, especially if you take the blood thinner warfarin (Coumadin®, Jantoven®), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), or aspirin.
Manic episodes: Greatly increased energy; severe trouble sleeping; racing thoughts; reckless behavior; unusually grand ideas; excessive happiness or irritability; talking more or faster than usual.
Discontinuation symptoms: Do not suddenly stop VIIBRYD without first talking to your healthcare provider. Stopping VIIBRYD suddenly may cause serious symptoms including: flu-like symptoms (eg, headache, sweating, nausea); anxiety, high or low mood, irritability, feeling restless or sleepy; dizziness, electric shock-like sensations, tremor, and confusion.
Seizures or convulsions.
Glaucoma (angle-closure glaucoma): Many antidepressants, including VIIBRYD, may cause an eye problem called angle-closure glaucoma. Call your healthcare provider if you have changes in your vision or eye pain.
Low salt (sodium) levels in the blood: Elderly people may be at greater risk for this. Symptoms may include headache; weakness or feeling unsteady; confusion, problems concentrating or thinking or memory problems.
- Do not take any drugs known as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), including linezolid (an antibiotic), with VIIBRYD or within 14 days of stopping VIIBRYD
- Do not start VIIBRYD if you started or stopped taking an MAOI in the last 14 days
People who take VIIBRYD close in time to taking an MAOI may have serious or even life-threatening side effects.
- Tell your healthcare provider about any medical conditions or if you:
- Have liver or kidney problems
- Have or had mania, bipolar disorder (manic depression), seizures or convulsions
- Have or had bleeding problems. VIIBRYD may increase your chance of bleeding or bruising
- Have low salt (sodium) levels in your blood or are taking diuretics (water pills)
- Drink alcohol
- Are pregnant, breastfeeding or are planning to become pregnant or to breastfeed
- Tell your healthcare provider about all prescription, over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and herbal supplements you are taking or plan to take, especially:
- Triptans used to treat migraine headaches; medicines used to treat mood, anxiety, psychotic or thought disorders, including tricyclics, lithium, SSRIs, SNRIs, buspirone, amphetamines, or antipsychotics; tramadol, mephenytoin (Mesantoin) or over-the-counter supplements such as tryptophan or St. John’s Wort; this is necessary to avoid a potentially life-threatening condition
- Aspirin, NSAID pain relievers, or blood thinners (eg, warfarin, Coumadin, or Jantoven) because they may increase the risk of bleeding
- Diuretics (water pills)
- Until you know how VIIBRYD affects you, you should not drive, operate heavy machinery, or engage in other dangerous activities. Avoid drinking alcohol while taking VIIBRYD.
- The most common side effects in people taking VIIBRYD include diarrhea, nausea or vomiting, and trouble sleeping.
- Tell your healthcare provider if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away. These are not all the possible side effects of VIIBRYD. For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.